Technical Sessions

Technical Sessions

Session 1
Moderator; Paul Froede, Alabama DOT; Jason Hastings, Delaware DOT

DAY ONE- ABC Case Study

ABC 19-001: WSDOT Ferry Terminal at Colman Dock Pedestrian Bridge Utilizing Innovative Materials for Accelerated Bridge Erection

Geoff Swett, WA State Department of Transportation – Bridge and Structures Office

The Washington State Ferries is upgrading the aging and seismically vulnerable parts of the Colman Dock in Seattle. As part of the upgrade, a new pedestrian bridge 157’-4” long will be constructed. Given the staged construction, it is desirable to construct the bridge in the shortest timeframe to reduce site construction. Prefabricated Sandwich Plate System bridge deck panels were selected to form the new decking on the bridge. The preassembled bridge was floated on a barge to the construction site and erected directly onto the bearings as a complete bridge in less than one day.

ABC 19-002: I-15 Garnet Interchange; Nevada’s First Full Depth Precast Deck Panels & Two Span Precast Voided Slab Bridges

*Daniel Ferris, Ames Construction, Inc.; Dereck Stonebraker, Horrocks Engineers

The Design-Build team of Ames Construction and Horrocks Engineers was selected by the Nevada Department of Transportation to redesign and reconstruct the I-15 Garnet Interchange. The Design-Build team opted to utilize Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques to meet the goals of the project. Full depth precast concrete deck panels and precast/prestressed two span voided slab structures were selected as the Best-Value approach.

As construction of the new I-15 interchange was the critical path of the project and to reduce traffic impacts to the traveling public, full depth precast panels were utilized as an ABC technique resulting in significant schedule savings.

ABC 19-003: Replacement of the MBTA Franklin Line over East Street, Westwood, MA

* Kristofer Kretsch, Kaleigh Rowe Stutz – VHB

The primary goal of this project was to improve the horizontal and vertical clearance of the roadway below MBTA’s East Street Bridge in Westwood, Massachusetts. The substandard features resulted in many traffic accidents and vehicle collisions with the bridge structure. To minimize disruption to rail service and East Street traffic, accelerated bridge construction techniques were used to the maximum extent practicable. Bridge replacement, including associated utility relocations and track realignment, were accomplished during a series of short-duration track and roadway closures, and weekend shutdowns. The design incorporated drilled shaft foundations with precast substructure elements, and prefabricated steel superstructures.

ABC 19-019: Accelerated Superstructure Replacement for the Hoboken Viaduct

*Thomas Zink, Gennett Fleming

This project was initiated by the New Jersey DOT to rehabilitate the aging Hoboken Viaduct. A Smart Solutions Study led to an ABC scheme that changed the scope to a full superstructure and partial substructure replacement project while saving $35 million in initial construction costs and reducing construction duration by 12 months. Increased life cycle benefits were also realized since the ABC scheme allowed traffic to be removed from the structure, thereby allowing all 220 floorbeams and the columns that support them to be replaced. This paper will present both the conventional and ABC designs and provide a side-by-side comparison to demonstrate the advantages of ABC concepts.

ABC 19-020: Accelerated Construction of Unbraced Network Arch Bridge Using SPMTs

*Mike LaViolette, HDR; Brad Wagner, Michigan, DOT

The 2nd Avenue Bridge represents one of the most unique bridges in the United States – not only due to the skewed, unbraced network arch configuration, but also for the innovative accelerated bridge construction (ABC) process that will utilize SPMTs to move the bridge into place during a weekend closure of I-94. This presentation will discuss the bridge design and details, invaluable fabricator and specialty contractor interaction during the design and the preferred bridge construction sequence that will be utilized. Construction will begin in Fall 2018 and a future presentation could be used to show the bridge move which is currently scheduled for Spring 2020.

ABC 19-021: UHPC Overlay at Multiple Bridge Interchange in Elsmere, DE

*William Geschrei, Zachary Gabay – Whitman, Requardt & Associates, LLP

The ‘Elsmere UHPC Bridge Overlay’ project features three Delaware Department of Transportation owned bridges.

These structures were constructed in 1973 and superstructures are in good condition. However, two aging original bridge decks and one prematurely delaminating LMC overlay at the interchange require rehabilitation.

This rehabilitation project will repair all defective concrete components, relocate the transverse abutment bridge joints away from and off of the bridge superstructures, and seal and protect the bridge decks with an innovative UHPC overlay. The objective of this effort is two-fold: to significantly reduce future maintenance costs and to significantly increase their remaining service life.

ABC 19-022: Bothasfontein Interchange Bridge, South Africa – an ABC Composite Steel/Concrete 4-Span Bridge erected in Two Consecutive Weekends over 25 years ago

*Jose Calisto da Silva, Biggs Cardosa Associates Inc.

The Bothasfontein Interchange Bridge was constructed over 25 years ago over the busiest freeway in Africa, which is the I-405 connecting Pretoria to Joannesburgh. There was a very natural concern for traffic interference on a road with highly congested traffic and severe restraint regarding the depth of the bridge. Innovative solutions had to be found, which passed by the consideration of a composite steel concrete structure and precast concrete deck panels for the full width of the bridge with transverse unbonded prestressing. In the end a very elegant structure was achieved, with aesthetically pleasing post-tensioned V columns, which was able to be put in place over the course of two consecutive weekends.

DAY TWO- DOT ABC Experiences

ABC 19-043: Is ABC a Good Fit?  Development of the Illinois Department of Transportation’s Accelerated Bridge Construction Evaluation Method

*Eric Ozimok, AECOM; Patrik Claussen Illinois Department of Transportation

The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has always strived to build bridges more economically and efficiently throughout Illinois. The IDOT hand-picked several opportunities for Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) pilot projects. Based on the lessons learned from these projects and the potential economic and safety improvements utilizing ABC, the IDOT desired to develop an ABC evaluation method for future design projects within their inventory. The main goal was to filter bridge projects and identify which structures were good fits for accelerating construction. This presentation will provide a brief summary of the Department’s successful pilot projects; a basic overview and guidelines.

ABC 19-044: FDOT Experience with PBES for Small-Medium Span Bridges

*Steven Nolan, Sam Fallaha, Vickie Young- Florida Department of Transportation

In the last quarter century some elaborate methods of accelerated bridge construction have been explored and executed in Florida, predominately though necessity in the segmental construction. This paper focuses on four modest structural systems which where demonstrated on several FDOT construction projects since the initiation of FHWA’s Every Day Counts program. These ABC structural systems include: Precast Intermediate Bent Caps; Precast Full-Depth Bridge Deck Panels; Prestressed Concrete Florida-Slab Beams; Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge Systems. These systems represent a narrow but potentially prolific scope of the ABC initiative, and reflect some of the structural priorities of the FDOT, and lessons learned during the period of 2010 to 2018.

ABC 19-0045: Everyday ABC in Texas

*Jamie Farris, Texas Department of Transportation

Though not as flashy as highly publicized rapid bridge replacements, Texas has seen great success in utilizing prefabricated (precast) elements from the ground up to increase speed and quality in almost all aspects of bridge design and construction. For decades, Texas has relied on precast superstructure and deck elements. In recent years there have been great advances in the use of other bridge elements, including: caps, columns, railing, and unique elements. The presentation will cover what Texas has done, is doing, and plans to do with prefabricated elements that allow us to design, build, and maintain high quality, economical bridges.

ABC 19-061: TDOT I-240 MemFix4 – CMGC – Memphis, TN

*Lia Obaid, Tennessee Department of Transportation; Jacob Williams, Alfred Benesch & Co; David Paris, Kiewit Infrastructure South Co.      

The Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT) undertook CMGC project to widen I-240 with new overhead bridges. The project area had many physical constraints that required innovative solutions to meet the Department’s primary goal of a short duration. This team collaborated to select several viable alternatives to explore.  The Eastbound and Westbound Poplar Ave. bridges were replaced during 56-hour closures utilizing precast superstructure modular units with steel beams and a full depth concrete slab.  The NSR bridge utilized a temporary shoofly to facilitate the bridge replacement.  Once the permanent substructures were completed, the bridge was slid one track at a time into place to the original rail alignment.

ABC 19-062: Belden-Laurel – FULL PRECAST BRIDGE ELEMENTS

*Mark Traynowicz, Fouad Jaber – Nebraska DOT

This project is intended to increase the safety and efficiency of highway 20, as well as help provide important economic development opportunities for the surrounding communities. This bridge replacement project will employ the first full accelerated construction technique in Nebraska. Instead of taking the typical six months of detours and road construction, the project will inconvenience travelers for about 30 days by using about a 7 miles detour. The project was completed in spring 2018.

ABC 19-079: ABC solution to bridge in Woodstock Vermont

* Robert Young, Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans)                         

The Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) coordinated with local officials to replace the superstructure of a structurally deficient bridge carrying Vermont Route 4 over the Kedron Brook in Woodstock, Vermont. The Town Selectboard was familiar with VTrans’ Accelerated Bridge Program and determined very early in the process that Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques should be utilized to minimize impacts to area businesses and regional traffic. This presentation will reveal the traffic control package required to meet the needs of both local and regional traffic, explain design details to satisfy the geometric constraints, and show the construction techniques used to build a bridge in a restricted village setting.

ABC 19-080: IDOT Accelerated Bridge Construction Pilot Project- Illinois Route 115 over Gar Creek in Kankakee County

* Chad Hodel, WHKS & Co., Inc.

In October 2017, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) completed its first total bridge replacement project implementing accelerated bridge construction (ABC) techniques with a targeted road closure period of only 72 hours. The pilot project was a success in that it illustrated that ABC techniques can be employed to complete such a project in significantly less time than conventional staged construction or full road closure and is expected to serve as an example for other projects. Valuable insight was gained with the pilot project regarding modifications to plan details and specifications that can aid contractors and help facilitate ABC concepts.

ABC 19-081: Rapid Replacement of Bayou Sara Bridge Swing Span

* Kevin Kane , Brasfield & Gorrie, LLC; David Knickerbocker, Israe Zizaoui – HDR, Inc.    

CSX’s single-track, 163-ft long Bayou Sara Bridge swing span was fast approaching 100 years of age and in need of replacement. Approach spans had been recently replaced, and foundation integrity was determined to be adequate to support a replacement span. Objectives for the replacement included minimized maintenance, remote operation capability, and a premium on speed of replacement, to minimize service interruption. The resulting superstructure is a hydraulically-driven through-girder span with the service tower elevated over the railway at center pivot. The grillage and preparations on the existing bridge made it possible to replace the swing span with a rail service outage of only 14 hours.

ABC 19-082: Accelerated Bridge Construction and Design of the Camp Creek – Single Span PPCB Bridge and Old Man’s Creek – 3 Span Continuous Rolled Steel Bridge on IA 1

*Jesse Peterson, IOWA Department of Transportation

We propose to discuss two recent projects where the Iowa DOT has employed ABC construction techniques to accelerate construction and reduce end user cost.  The first part of the presentation will provide an overview of lessons learned with respect to the recent completion of the single span lateral slide of the precast prestressed beam bridge on Iowa 1 over Camp Creek (Washington 218).  The second part of the presentation will discuss innovations used from prior lateral slide projects for the design of our upcoming 3 span lateral slide (scheduled for Summer 2020) of the proposed 3 span continuous rolled steel beam bridge (Johnson 1519).

ABC 19-083: Weekend Replacement – Routes 1/9 & 46 over Jones Road

*Agnieszka Lapinski, Thomas Zink – Gannett Fleming, Inc.

A 60-foot-long single-span bridge at Fort Lee Borough, New Jersey deteriorated over time. The condition and functionality of the bridge did not meet traffic demands and was classified as structurally deficient, as a result, the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) decided to replace the bridge superstructure in its entirety. Over two weekends in July 2017, the project team used timesaving Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques including installation of seven Prefabricated Superstructure Units (PSUs) to help eliminate commuter impacts. The PSUs were detailed to orient the new beams parallel with the mainline to simplify bridge framing and better accommodate future maintenance.

Session 2 

Moderator; David Benton, Arizona DOT; Stephen James Harelson, Colorado DOT

Time: 1:40PM – 5:40 PM

DAY ONE- ABC SEISMIC

ABC 19-004: Innovative Design and Materials for Seismic Resilient Accelerated Bridge Construction

Bijan Khaleghi, Washington State Department of Transportation

In Accelerated Bridge Construction, different materials and elements are being utilized. Precast concrete superstructures are made with high performance/high strength concrete to be more durable, economical and cost competitive than other superstructure types. The new wide flange deck girders could be fabricated using either normal weight or light weight aggregates concretes. Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is considered for connection between girders to improve the performance of the connection between girders. Other ABC innovations are the use of super elastic materials consisting of shape memory alloy along with engineered cementitious concrete in plastic hinging regions of the columns, and prestressed column with self-centering capability for improved seismic resiliency. Concrete filled steel tubes in bridges as piers, piles or shafts. This paper discusses the different material and innovations in ABC both in research and field implementation.

ABC 19-005: An Alternative Precast Pier system for Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) in Seismic Regions

*Mustafa Mashal, Arya Ebrahimpour & Leonard Ruminski – Idaho State University

Grouted ducts and grouted couplers connections have been used in construction of precast pier systems by several departments of transportation, including the Idaho Transportation Department. These types of connections intend to emulate the traditional cast-in-place behavior during an earthquake. Past studies have shown good seismic performance. However, there are some construction challenges with these connections. This aspect alone is often an obstacle large enough as to preclude accelerated bridge construction (ABC) methods with precast piers, and instead to use much slower conventional construction methods. An alternative simplified connection using steel pipes is proposed for precast systems in seismic regions.

ABC 19-006: Accelerated Construction and CMGC Delivery for the San Diego Genesee Viaduct

*Pooya Haddadi, Bita Shahla, Nathan Johnson – WSP USA

The Mid-Coast Corridor Transit Project (MCCTP) is the largest transit infrastructure project currently under construction in San Diego, California. The $2.2B project includes 4 miles of aerial structures, 12 bridge structures, 9 station facilities and 5 miles of retaining walls. It was critical to minimize impacts to the vehicular arterial during construction, including footprint within the median, and maintaining traffic at intersections within the dense urban area.  This paper will provide an overview of design features, CMGC interaction during the design, and key decisions made by design and CMGC team to improve and accelerate the project delivery from design through construction.

ABC 19-023: Behavior of UHPC Columns Subjected to Combined Axial and Lateral Loading

*Mahmoud Aboukifa, Mohamed Moustafa, Ahmad Itani – University of Nevada, Reno

Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is not widely used due to the lack of full understanding. There is a great potential for application of UHPC in full structural elements. This study aims at studying the behavior of UHPC columns subjected to axial and lateral loading using experimental and computational methods. Large-scale UHPC columns were tested. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) model was developed and user-defined constitutive models for UHPC behavior were calibrated using the experimental results. The FE model was used to generate an axial load-moment interaction envelope for UHPC columns and compare it to conventional reinforced concrete columns.

ABC 19-024: Assessment of the Seismic Performance of an ABC Steel Girder Bridge through Shake Table Studies

*Elmira Shoushtarirezvani, Saiid Saiidi, Ahmad Itani – University of Nevada, Reno

A 0.35-scale steel girder bridge system incorporating prefabricated elements and six ABC connections was designed, constructed, and tested on a shake table. The main objective was to investigate the performance of ABC bridges that combine multiple connection types under strong earthquake excitations. The test model had two equal spans, seat type abutments and a two column bent which was subjected to eight biaxial earthquake motions. The test results showed that the bridge performance was satisfactory and emulative of the conventional bridges. The column connections underwent large inelastic deformations while the four other ABC connections and the capacity-protected components remained elastic and damage free.

ABC 19-025: A Framework to Quantify the Cumulative Damage Due to Induced Seismicity

*Philip Harvey, Sumangali Sivakumaran, Kanthasamy Muraleetharan – University of Oklahoma

States such as Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas and Arkansas historically have experienced only one or two tectonic earthquakes annually, but these states are now experiencing earthquakes at an increased rate due to induced seismicity. Consequently, State Departments of Transportation are concerned about how their bridges that were originally designed for low seismic design loads will handle this increased seismic demand. This research addresses the knowledge gap on the effects of low level frequent earthquakes on the bridges and proposes a framework to assess the cumulative damage on bridges using rainflow counting based on ASTM standard practice for cycle counting in fatigue.

ABC 19-026: Rapid Repair of Earthquake Damaged Substandard Bridge Columns Targeting Future Service Level Performance

*Peter Dusicka, Gregory Norton, Ilya Palnikov – Portland State University

The Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) earthquake has a high probability of occurrence, threatening bridges across the Pacific Northwest. This presentation will outline the methodology of full-scale cyclic experiments that validate the performance. The adopted concept is to utilize a short external steel collar that is secured via conventional anchors to the non-damaged parts of the column. The collar utilizes externally attached ductile fuses to bypass the damaged zone and connect to the rest of the bridge to restore the lateral capacity. The experiments validated the design goal of achieving restored or controlled strength, while also exhibiting the targeted self-centering behavior.

DAY TWO- Case Study

ABC 19-063: Tennessee DOT Fast 4 Bridge Replacement Project

*Ted Kniazewycz, Tennessee DOT; Scott McKinney, Bell & Associates Construction, LP

The TDOT Fast-4 project was the first large-scale Design-Bid-Build ABC project undertaken by the Tennessee DOT with a contract value of $28.6M. The bridges to be replaced are located on an extremely heavily traveled segment of I-24 in downtown Nashville. The project included the replacement of four bridges over 4 weekends utilizing prefabricated bridge elements (PBES) on existing strengthened substructures. The PBES utilized precast, prestressed concrete box beams with longitudinally oriented conventionally reinforced full depth deck panels. This project was a huge success for the Department and the contractor was able to finish approximately 40 days early.

ABC 19-046: Accelerated Construction OF I-40 Meteor City TI OP

*William Downes, Brent Conner – Arizona Department of Transportation

Accelerated construction of two new bridges carrying mainline Interstate 40 over Meteor City Road will be accomplished utilizing Geosynthetic reinforced soil-Integrated Bridge System (GRS-IBS) and Pre-cast structural elements. The I-40 Meteor City TI is located in northern Arizona. No I-40 lanes will be closed and all traffic disruptions are limited to a total of 28 days. All bridge components are to be precast. The two bridges do not have quantity items for either concrete or steel. This will also be the first bridge in the State of Arizona to use a polyester polymer concrete (PPC) on the box beams.

ABC 19-047: Pennsylvania Turnpike Commision – EB117 ABC Bridge Replacement

Edward Bosack, Alfred Benesch and Company; John  Boyer, Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission

The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission employed accelerated bridge construction techniques to replace a deteriorating 3 span noncomposite steel girder bridge over the Norfolk Southern Railroad. The replacement structure is a single span composite steel girder supported by full height concrete abutments on a micropile foundation. Attendees will learn the design process and planning involved with developing a project which has critical path items involving the railroad and temporary utility outages along with managing high volume traffic detours. The presentation will review the constructability issues considered during design and compare them to how the contractor ultimately constructed the project.

ABC 19-048: Route 46 over Piaget Avenue (CR 628) Bridge Superstructure Replacement in Two Weekends

*John  Hanke            , Nirav Shah, Prakash Patel – MP Engineers, P.C.        

The Route 46 Bridge over Piaget Avenue in Clifton, New Jersey was a single span structure. Because of deteriorating and crumbling concrete, the superstructure needed to be replaced. The bridge carried significantly high traffic volumes.MP Engineers developed an Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) method using Prefabricated Bridge Units (PBU). The joints in between the PBU’s were to be filled with rapid curing Polyester Polymer Concrete (PPC). By using this ABC method the eastbound half of the bridge was constructed in one single weekend closure and the westbound half of the bridge was built in a second weekend closure.

ABC 19-064: Tamworth Rte. 113E Over Bearcamp River ABC Bridge Construction

*James Hall, Robert            Durfee – Dubios and King; James Bowles, New Hampshire Department of Transportation

DuBois & King (D&K) provided design, assistance in the public involvement process for replacement of the bridge carrying NH Route 113 over Bearcamp River in the town of Tamworth. The existing bridge is a 3-span bridge with a total length of 123 ft. The center span is steel girders and a concrete deck, while the end spans are concrete slabs. D&K designed the replacement using Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques in a compressed 28-day timeframe in August 2018. The replacement bridge is the longest single span of its type with a span length butted box beam bridge of 133′-0″ between bearings.

ABC 19-065: Temporary Bridge Installation for Replacement of the Palisades Interstate Parkway Helix Ramp, Ft. Lee, Nj

*Doug Brunot            , Sunbelt Rentals

The project is located at the New Jersey side of the George Washington Bridge (GWB). A helix ramp structure has reached its design life and is in need of replacement. In order to replace the bridge, traffic must be diverted from the existing structures. The only practical way to do this is through the use of temporary bridge structures. Sunbelt Rentals, DBA Mabey Inc., was brought on to the project team by Judlau Contracting in early 2016. Their role was to work with Judlau and the Port Authority’s consultant to develop a temporary bridge scheme that met the project specification requirements.

ABC 19-066: Rapid Replacement of Two Washington Dot Stream Crossing Bridges Using Prefabricated Arch Bridge Systems

*Michael Carfagno, Contech Engineered Solutions LLC; Kali Dickerson, Stantec

The Washington Department of Transportation (WSDOT) used different approaches to solve challenges faced on two stream crossing bridge replacement projects in 2018. Using the same contractor for both projects, the same prefabricated bridge system was implemented to successfully replace both bridges in record times. This paper will introduce the concept of twin-leaf precast arch structures, how they can be a strong alternative to conventional bridges and will discuss these two WSDOT Accelerated Bridge Construction projects highlighting the construction sequencing, challenges faced, and the lessons learned.

ABC 19-084: Rapid Reconstruction of BNSF Br. 482.1 West Approach

*Temple Overman, HNTB Corporation; Cory Duerr, Kramer North America

Reconstruction of the 125-year old West approach for BNSF Br. 482.1 near Memphis, Tennessee was completed in October 2017. The Memphis bridge was the first to cross the lower Mississippi River in 1892 and it remains an important crossing for BNSF today. This presentation will discuss various aspects of the two-year project including construction of a hybrid drilled shaft-micropile foundation adjacent to the existing timber pile foundation, and accelerated erection methods and lessons learned from replacing 2,712-ft of bridge superstructure in four track closure changeouts.

ABC 19-085: Application of Accelerated Bridge Construction Strategies and Innovative Structural Systems to High-Speed Rail      

* Marc Eberhard, John Stanton, Michelle Chang – University of Washington

High-speed rail systems have been proposed for numerous corridors in the United States. The proposed research will investigate, in close cooperation with the California High-Speed Rail project (CA-HSR) Authority, alternative structural systems that could offer better performance without the need for such massive construction. For example, systems that provide in-service stiffness, but that become more flexible under severe seismic conditions, offer possibilities for improvement. The team is evaluating various prefabrication strategies (in-plant or onsite), as well as post-tensioned rocking systems, seismic isolation with a sacrificial locking feature that breaks at a pre-selected triggering level, and variable friction isolation systems.  

ABC 19-086: ABC Techniques to Minimize Train Disruption: BNSF Railway Bridge 380.12 over I-235, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 

*James Hyland, TranSystems; Sue Tryon, Benham; Jeff Estes, BNSF Railway

The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) and BNSF Railway (BNSF) partnered to replace a BNSF bridge in Oklahoma City, OK. Careful planning and modifying of construction sequences by the contractor further reduced the schedule from 850 days to 550 days. Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques were utilized to minimize disruption to the 49 daily trains, as the new bridge was constructed on an offset alignment. To minimize disruption the new spans were assembled offsite and transported on Self-Propelled Modular Transports (SPMT’s). This presentation will detail the planning and construction challenges faced with this project including specifics on the weekend closure and truss construction.

ABC 19-087:  The Design and Construction of Bear Creek Crossing Railroad Bridge Irving, Texas                       

*Christian Ray, Jacobs; George Avalos, Dallas Area Rapid Transit

Dallas Area Rapid Transit operates buses, light rail, commuter rail and paratransit in Dallas and 12 surrounding North Texas cities, employed JACOBS to double the capacity of a corridor between the Dallas/Tarrant County Line and the West Irving Station. JACOBS’s responsibilities included presenting a constructability review for an existing concept and comparing with several other alternatives. The preferred bridge alternative over Bear Creek was a double-track steel superstructure on straddle bents using Accelerated Bridge Construction techniques. The paper will discuss the design development, owner’s constraints, the 72-hour slide-in. Alternate solutions that were discussed in detail with the owner, the designer, and the contractor will also be presented.

ABC 19-088: Construction Sequencing for Separating Highway-Rail Grade Crossings with Minimal Interruption to the Railroad

*Art Ivantchouk, Alaina Polkki – ART Engineering Inc.             

In recent years, government bodies and railway companies have been working towards eliminating dangerous highway-rail grade crossings. Due to operational requirements of the railroads, ABC techniques are sometimes implemented in these grade separation construction. Grade Separation System (GSS) is a technology allowing for the construction of an at-grade rail bridge and underpassing roadway without causing significant interruption to the railway schedule. Through the use of ABC techniques, GSS is able to eliminate the need for rail relocation and significantly reduce required temporary works. When compared to conventional methods, GSS is able to shorten construction schedules by 50% and reduce project costs by 45%.

Session 3

Moderator; Timothy Fields, Connecticut DOT; Richard Pratt, Alaska DOT

Time: 1:40PM – 5:40 PM

DAY ONE- UHPC- Research

ABC 19-007: Accelerated Construction and CMGC Delivery for the San Diego Genesee Viaduct

* Philip Loh, Bita Shahla, Dura Concrete Canada Incorporated

The structural engineering firm, eConstruct (Omaha, Nebraska, United States), has designed an Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) decked I-beam to be installed at a new privately-owned vehicular bridge in Shanty Bay, Ontario, Canada for demonstration and evaluation. Through a technology transfer joint venture agreement between FACCA Incorporated (Ruscom, Ontario, Canada) and Dura Technology (Ipoh, Malaysia), the Dura UHPC is batched using local North American raw materials. This presentation will focus on development of structural design criteria of the UHPC decked I-beam, with emphasis of Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) in the implementation pf this Design-Build project. The presentation will also list items needing further investigation.

(8TBD)

ABC 19-009: UHPC Joint Fill Construction Problems and Solutions on the Pulaski Skyway

* Michael McDonagh, Andrew Foden – WSP USA

The redecking of the Pulaski Skyway is the largest implementation of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) in North America to date. Approximately 1 million square feet (90,000 m²) of deck was replaced with precast concrete panels connected with field-placed UHPC, using a total volume of more than 5,000 cubic yards (3,800 m³) of UHPC.

This paper discusses the types of problems that arose and the solutions that were developed during the project.

The information presented should provide a useful guide for engineers and construction inspectors undertaking UHPC joint fill projects to understand the sort of UHPC construction problems that can arise.

ABC 19-027: Superstructure Replacement of Route 676 Bridges over North Branch of Newton Creek Utilizing Accelerated Bridge Construction

*Matthew Alboum, Erica Parriott – Dewberry Engineering, Inc.

Dewberry recently completed a $6.8 million project for the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) utilizing accelerated bridge construction (ABC) techniques for a bridge superstructure replacement. The project is located in a heavily travelled section of Interstate 676 in Camden, New Jersey. The circa 1954 bridges were 80’ long single span, steel multi-girder structures supported on common reinforced concrete abutments that carry an estimated 81,000 vehicles per day over the North Branch of Newton Creek. Despite the project challenges, the use of ABC technologies allowed for the superstructure replacements to be successfully completed within the required closure windows over four weekends with minimal impact to the community.

ABC 19-028: Superstructure Replacement of Winthrop Road Underpass in 45 Days utilizing Precast Concrete and UHPC

*William Rauseo, Andrew Prezioso, Gordon Edington – VHB

The 60-year-old Winthrop Road Bridge provides a crucial connection between downtown Hallowell, ME, and the Maine capital region. The bridge required rehabilitation and an increase to the vertical underclearance. It was an ideal candidate to implement ABC techniques to minimize long term traffic impacts. The deck was comprised of precast concrete deck panels tied together using UHPC deck joints. The bridge rehabilitation consisted of full superstructure replacement and seat elevation modifications to the existing substructure piers and abutment. VHB’s diligence and Resident Engineer resulted in a substantial completion date that reopened the bridge to the public in just 45 days!

ABC 19-029: Innovative Partnership Leads to First Use of PBU’s and UHPC by the NHDOT

*Joshua Lund, Robert Landry, Jr. – New Hampshire DOT

This bridge rehabilitation project located on NH Route 107A in East Kingston, NH replaced a three-span superstructure. It was targeted to evaluate innovative rehabilitation alternatives that would minimize impacts to the travelling public and railroad. Therefore, a bare concrete deck was proposed to maintain the existing vertical clearance and provide a thicker structural concrete deck. The recommendation was to utilize Prefabricated Bridge Units (PBU’s) with Ultra High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) closure pours, representing the first use of these elements by the NHDOT. Attendees of this presentation will benefit by learning how innovative detailing combined with modern materials can be tailored to successfully complete projects at challenging sites.

ABC 19-030: MnDOT use of Bridge Move Techniques and Precast Deck with UHPC

*Paul Pilarski, Minnesota DOT; Matt Christie – WSP, USA

Bridges 82873 and 82874 are currently under construction at a cloverleaf interchange joining two of Minnesota’s busiest highways, replacing two existing bridges. In an effort to speed construction and gain contractor and agency experience with accelerated bridge construction techniques, a temporary bridge slide and precast deck panels with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) will be employed. To maintain traffic, a portion of the existing southbound bridge will be moved to the middle onto new, temporary substructures. The moved, existing bridge consists of a four span, continuous steel girder superstructure. Costs and implications for future MnDOT work will be discussed

DAY TWO- ABC- Case Study

ABC 19-049: UHPC Based ABC Solutions

*Atorod Azizinamini, Florida international University

TBD

ABC 19-050: Advancing Ultra-High Performance Concrete in the Bridge Sector

*Benjamin Graybeal, Federal Highway Administration; Rafic El-Helou, National Research Council

Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has gained a foothold in the U.S. bridge sector. Interest is growing in broader uses of UHPC to address existing challenges in bridge design, construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation. The FHWA Turner- Fairbank Highway Research Center is pressing forward with the development of innovative solutions. One current study is focusing on key structural performance metrics relevant to the use of UHPC in primary structural elements. Full scale pretensioned girder tests are planned and results will be discussed. Working with the AASHTO structural concrete design committee, the FHWA researchers are drafting a guide specification that may be adopted upon completion.

ABC 19-051: Trending ABC Designs Utilizing UHPC

*Gregory Nault, LafargeHolcim – Ductal

Since 1997 more than 280 bridges have been constructed throughout North America utilizing UHPC materials in their designs, with half of these bridges having been constructed over the past three years. The vast majority of these projects have included prefabricated bridge elements with UHPC connections as an Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) technique. Each one of these systems, along with several others, offers unique advantages which should be considered during the design of future ABC projects. The intent of this presentation is to highlight these trending ABC design and construction practices and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various ABC/UHPC systems being deployed.

ABC 19-067: Interface Shear Behavior of UHPC with and Without Supplemental Reinforcement

*Zachary Haber, Benjamin Graybeal – FHWA-TFHRC

Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) provides numerous opportunities for innovation in the design and construction of highway bridges. As these new opportunities arise so do new challenges. Optimized girder geometries would likely include thin webs, tall sections, and high pretensioning forces. Thus, the interface shear resistance between the girder flanges and the web is critical. To address this gap, FHWA’s Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center is currently executing an experimental program to evaluate the interface shear behavior of this class of materials. This paper will highlight the key findings of this research, and will compare newly collected data with existing data from tests on high-strength concrete and UHPC.

ABC 19-068: Field-Cast Connection Performance: Solutions to Shrinkage And Interface Bond Issues

*Igor De la Varga, Robert Spragg – SES Group and Associates; Benjamin   Graybeal, Federal Highway Administration         

Field-cast connections between prefabricated bridge elements have traditionally been a weak link in accelerated bridge construction (ABC) systems. The field construction activities related to connecting the elements have been less controlled and have used materials with lesser durability. These connections, including their design, materials, interfaces, constructability, and durability, must be robust else the advantages gained through the use of ABC can be lost through poor system performance. This paper presents a summary of suite of research studies focused on improving the shrinkage and interface bond properties of field-cast connections. Strategies to improve both properties are suggested, creating the opportunity for better performing ABC solutions.

ABC 19-069: Field Cast Connection Performance: Solutions to Shrinkage and Interface Bond Issues

*Peter Seibert, Trebona Consulting Inc.;  Vic Perry, V.iConsult Inc.; Gaston Doiron, Lafarge North America Inc.     

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) has unique characteristics such as ultra-high strength, bond development and durability. Field cast UHPC offer a great solution for the connections for precast concrete bridge elements. In 2014, the deteriorated pier caps and deck of the Hooper Road Bridge over Route 17C in Broome County, NY were rehabilitated using precast elements with UHPC field cast connections. Field cast UHPC was utilized for the precast pier cap to existing columns connection, for the link slab connections and for the precast deck panel connections. This paper presents a project overview after four years of service.

ABC 19-089: Modeling UHPC Link Slabs for the Wilmington Viaduct Bridge Rehabilitation Project           

*Loai El-Gazairly, David Nizamoff – Whitman, Requardt and Associates

The I-95 Wilmington Viaduct in Wilmington, Delaware is a bridge scheduled for rehabilitation in 2021. The owner, the Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT), is investigating the removal of fifteen failing transverse bridge deck joints via UHPC link slabs. Similar applications completed by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) suggests that the UHPC material is performing adequately.  DelDOT is exploring the use of the NYSDOT approach to extend the application of UHPC link slabs at superstructure locations. LARSA-4D was used to model the three-dimensional non-linear integrated behavior of the UHPC link slab within the bridge structure.

ABC 19-090: Enhancement of Ultra High-Performance Concrete Material Properties with Carbon Nanofiber

* Amirpasha Peyvandi, Jacobs Parviz – Michigan State University

Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) realized distinctly high mechanical, impermeability, and durability characteristics by reducing the size and content of capillary pore, refining the microstructure of cement hydrates, and effectively using fiber reinforcement. An optimization experimental program was implemented in order to identify the optimum combination of steel fiber and relatively low-cost carbon nanofiber in UHPC. The optimum volume fractions of steel fiber and carbon nanofiber identified for balanced improvement of flexural strength, ductility, energy sorption capacity, impact, and abrasion resistance of UHPC were 1.1% and 0.04%, respectively.

ABC 19-091: Correlation Between Tensile Strength & Modulus of Rupture for Ultra High Performance Concrete

*Zoi Ralli, Stavroula Pantazopoulou – York University

The increased use of ultra-high-performance concrete depends on the ability to reliably assess the actual mechanical properties from samples taken during preparation of the mix and in the field during placement of the material. The tests for the tensile strength and tensile strain ductility of UHPC are very difficult to conduct. Therefore, there is an emerging need for correlate the values obtained from the two categories of tests. This paper explores the influence of flaw distributions on the response of specimens subjected to the various alternative states of stress to illustrate the basis of the proposed calibration.

ABC 19-092: Experimental Study On Flexural Behaviors of Steel-UHPC Waffle Plate Composite Beam

* Jinsong Jinsong, Xiaoyu Guo, Yongguang Wang – Tianjin University

Based on the understanding of basic mechanical system of steel-UHPC waffle plate composite beam (SUWB), six specimens with various section height of waffle plate, height of ribs, amount of longitudinal and transverse ribs and layout of studs were designed and tested to study the flexural behaviors of SUWB. The influences of different parameters on the flexural behaviors of composite beam were compared and analyzed in terms of crack propagation, failure modes, load-deflection curves, section strain distribution and relative slip between steel beam and waffle plate. The test results indicated that the layout of ribs and studs had little effect on the flexural behaviors of SUWB.

ABC 19-093: Rib Scale Approach to Investigate the Bond Performance Of Reinforcement In Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete

*Fabien Lagier, Polytechnique Montreal; Aude Rosini SNC-Lavalin 

A detailed nonlinear 3D FE model strategy with reinforcing bar modeled at rib scale was developed in this study. Calibration and validation of the model were performed from an experimental program. A comprehensive understanding of the bond strength mechanisms of reinforcing bar within UHPFRC is provided. This study highlights the importance of accurately selecting the UHPFRC properties. Also, the paper shows the interest in future of using validated nonlinear 3D finite element model to generate extensive parametric studies and to provide a basis for establishing rational design criteria for anchorages and splice in UHPFRC connections.

Session 4 – ABC Tools & Solutions

Moderator; Timothy Fields, Connecticut DOT; Richard Pratt, Alaska DOT

Time: 1:40PM – 5:40 PM

DAY ONE- ABC tools and solutions

ABC 19-010: The use of Pocket Guides and Smart Phone Apps for Bridge Preservation Construction Projects

* Eric Thorkildsen, Greenman-Pedersen, Inc. (GPI)

In this world of accelerated construction, quality can suffer if those delegated with bridge construction inspection are not properly trained. Greenman- Pedersen, Inc. (GPI) was contracted by the Federal Highway Administration to develop a series of Pocket Guides on construction specific to bridge preservation. Guides developed to date include installation of Thin Polymer Overlays on bridge decks, removal and replacement of bridge coatings, installation of bridge expansion joints and bridge cleaning. The pocket guide offers quick checklists and the “what is important” aspects of the installation. This presentation/paper will illustrate the guides and how they can be effective tools in the field.

 

ABC 19-011: Training Construction Inspectors in Accelerated Bridge Construction Techniques

*David Hoyne, Willy Grimmke – Greenman Pedersen, Inc

In today’s rapidly changing world, with many innovative methods to construct bridges and a demand for construction inspectors with bridge experience, the training of inspectors has lagged the technology. Perhaps the most significant example of this is with Accelerated Bridge Construction. The training arm of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is the National Highway Institute (NHI). FHWA recently awarded Greenman-Pedersen, Inc. (GPI) a contract to update the existing NHI course. This paper will provide an overview of the revised course, including the technical concepts covered by the lessons, the web-based and instructor led delivery methods and the expected learning outcomes.

ABC 19-0012: Eliminating the need for Formwork by using UHPC Shell

*Islam Mantawy, Atorod Azizinamini, Nerma Caluk – Florida International University

Incorporating UHPC for a prefabricated shell that acts as stay-in-place formwork for bridge columns eliminates the conventional formwork and reduces on-site construction time. In addition, the prefabricated shell acts as a durable protective layer for the normal concrete inside the column, while also providing additional confinement, which improves column’s structural performance. This presentation discusses the specimen development and experimental results of two columns which are utilizing UHPC shell tested under cyclic loading.

ABC 19-031: Next Generation of Folded Steel Plate Girder Systems for Short Span Bridges

*Atorod Azizinamini

Methodologies were developed to extend the maximum length of the Folded Steel Plate Girder Bridge System to about 100 ft. Work consisted of envisioning the connection detail and carrying out numerous non-linear finite element analysis and developing the proof of concept test, that includes testing two FSGBS with types of connections envisioned. This presentation discusses the testing of one test specimen along with numerical calibration.

ABC 19-032: A Statistical Summary of Accelerated Bridge Construction Practice in Federal and State Transportation Agencies

*Yielei Shi, State University of New York, Canton

Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) has been received prominent attention in federal and state transportation agencies and has been applied to various projects throughout United States. While minimizing the adverse travel impact to community during bridge construction, it also advances the state-of-practice of bridge design and construction. This paper aims to provide a summary of ABC design and construction methods by statistical and programming analysis. Previous ABC projects at federal and state levels were surveyed in regards to bridge and transportation information, ABC methods applied for construction and design, construction time frame, cost analysis, and lessons learned, etc.

ABC 19-033: Productivity Analysis in ABC

*Joseph Krajewski, HNTB / University of Washington College of the Built Environment

Accelerated bridge construction can be defined as anything that shortens the project schedule. Productivity analysis is a technique to measure of the rate at which work is performed; identifies actual production work and non-productive work; measures cost efficiency and can discover opportunities to improve work and lower costs. This presentation will demonstrate how productivity analysis can be used for ABC on the replacement of the superstructure of the Wilburton Timber Trestle Bridge located in Bellevue, WA. The presentation will focus on the productivity analysis of erecting the 150 stringers and 600 diaphragms that connect them together.

ABC 19-034: Precast Segmental Bridge Construction as an ABC Tool

*Gregg Freeby, American Segmental Bridge Institute

While precast segmental bridge construction (PSBC) is not a new idea, it’s use as an ABC tool has created new interest in segmental bridge construction. The recently completed Lesner Bridge, where precast span-by-span, as well as unidirectional balanced cantilever segmental construction, was used to replace existing twin structures with limited traffic disruptions.  The owner chose precast segmental and precast substructure elements specifically to minimize duration of interstate closure by offsite fabrication and rapid construction methods. Foundations were constructed with low-headroom equipment to pre-install micro-piles, drilled shafts and H-piling. Varying deck widths and introduction of entrance and exit ramps create complex geometry easily accommodated with segmental construction.

DAY TWO- ABC Repair and Replacement

ABC 19-052: Accelerated and Resilient Repair of Bridge Columns

*Shamimm Sheikh, University of Toronto

Upgrade and repair of existing structures is an expensive and time consuming exercise in most cases. In the research presented here, an accelerated procedure was developed for repair, and used to repair a bridge that was monitored for its long-term performance. The concrete cover was completely spalled off in a number of columns. These columns were repaired using the accelerated techniques which involved building the columns with different types of grouts including one based on the expansive cement especially developed for such applications and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) wraps. Long term monitoring of several rehabilitated columns in the field showed excellent performance.

ABC 19-053: Using Existing and New Innovative Methods to Accelerate Rehabilitation of Four I-89 Bridges

* Scott Burbank, VHB; Mark Alexander, Kubricky Construction Corporation

For travelers to and from Burlington, Vermont Interstate 89 provides a critical north-south link. Therefore, when the Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) identified the need to rehabilitate Bridges 76 N&S and 77 N&S in nearby Colchester, it became a priority to minimize the inconvenience to the 2,500 vehicles per hour that pass through this corridor during commuting hours. Because traffic volumes drop through the project area overnight and during the weekend, VHB has focused on ABC techniques. To construct the rehabilitation of the four I-89 bridges in the allotted time, the VHB-Kubricky team turned to an innovate approach: by alternating the direction of travel on the left lane of the barrel where the bridges are not under construction, it is possible to have two lanes of traffic in each commuting direction. This will allow a portion of the bridge deck to be demoed before the weekend closure. Using a combination of ABC techniques, unique materials, and traffic management, the VHB-Kubricky team’s plan will involve closing each interstate barrel three times over three separate weekends for 59 hours.

ABC 19-054: Utilizing ABC Techniques for an Emergency Bridge Repair on the Garden State Parkway

*Mohammad Quasim, Todd Batchelor – HNTB Corporation

“Bridge No. 112.1NO carries the Garden State Parkway (Parkway) northbound outer roadway over Middletown-Lincroft Road. A flatbed trailer impacted the 36-foot long center span superstructure, causing irreparable deformation of the fascia and first interior stringers and damaging the adjacent diaphragms. HNTB and the New Jersey Turnpike Authority adapted Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) methods to replace the damaged superstructure in a single weekend. The ABC work activities were scheduled in a 67-hour timeframe from 10 am Friday to 5 am the following Monday and required closing two of three lanes on the Parkway in addition to the underpassing roadway.

ABC 19-070: Remote Monitoring and Innovative Techniques for the Construction of the Norfolk Southern Bridge over Cotton Run, Seven Mile, OH

*Elizabeth Hoekenga, Brett Mattas – Michael Baker International

A storm event on May 24th, 2017 resulted in extreme flooding of Cotton Run that nearly overtopped the existing rails of the Norfolk Southern Bridge, OH. A 24-hr track outage was planned to remove the existing superstructure, set the precast concrete abutment seats, and move the superstructure into place. The outage was executed on May 21, 2018, one year after the storm event. The replacement span is a 52’-0” single span through-girder bridge supported on precast concrete abutment seats. This paper outlines the benefits and lessons learned of the structure monitoring system, effective visualization tools, and the accelerated railroad bridge construction approach.

ABC 19-071: Case Study of Bridge Deck Replacement Strategies for Post-tensioned Concrete Box-girder Bridges

*Youyou Zhang, Rob Chai – University of California, Davis

In post-tensioned concrete box-girder bridges deck deterioration has become increasingly a maintenance issue. In this study, we aim to propose sound strategies for safe and effective replacement of deteriorate decks of post-tensioned concrete box girder bridges. So, we put forward various deck replacement strategies in 4 bridges, in terms of different longitudinal and transverse replacement sequence. For each replacement strategy, we developed corresponding finite element model. Numerical analysis results show that “all-span replacement strategy” and “negative-moment-region-first replacement strategy” are acceptable for selected bridges. Our findings enable Caltrans to conduct safe deck replacement and extend the service life of old concrete box girder bridge.

ABC 19-072: Washington Street (Route 85) over the Assabet River Bridge Replacement in Hudson, MA

*Darren Conboy, David Massenzio; Jacobs Engineering Group

Working closely with MassDOT, Jacobs Engineering Group utilized innovative construction methods and materials to successfully deliver a completed bridge. This included the use of precast substructure components, precast Northeast Extreme Tee D (NEXT-D) beams for the bridge superstructure and Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) for field-cast closure pours. The existing bridge over the Assabet River consisted of a deteriorated three span located in Hudson, Massachusetts. The bridge was replaced with NEXT-40D beams supported on concrete pile caps and micropiles. Discussion will include how piloted requirements for the prefabricated bridge elements, UHPC and concrete mixes were developed, evaluated and their final outcome.

ABC 19-094: Guideline for Selection of Substructure Projects

*Armin Mehrabi, Mohamadtaqi Baqersad, Hesham Ali – Florida International University

*TBD

ABC 19-095: Design First Florida I Beam Bridge with Grs Abutment                 

*Quanyang Yao, Andra Diggs II, Larry Jones – Florida DOT

The Department of Environment Protection’s (DEP) Division of Recreation and Parks proposed to replace a timber bridge due to inadequate bridge capacity and rapid deterioration of structural elements. Although original construction plans were unavailable, additional information emerged identifying the existing bridge as a historic structure to further complicate the design. A series of challenges developed during bridge design; such as where and how to relocate the historic structure, how to protect the historic timber bridge from impact of the new construction if it is not relocated, and where the new bridge would be located to avoid overshadowing the historic structure.

ABC 19-096: Environmental and Sustainability Benefits of Substructure Re-Use Projects

*David            Whitmore, Vector Corrosion Technologies Ltd.

Accelerated Bridge Construction projects where existing substructure components are re-used can reduce direct cost, shorten construction time and reduce traffic congestion. Substructure re-use can also provide quantifiable environmental benefits including; conservation of raw materials, reduction in the generation of demolition waste and the resulting need for landfill, and the protection of sensitive habitat and existing ecosystems. As a result of these direct and indirect benefits, substructure re-use in ABC projects is a sustainable practice and should be encouraged. The presentation will discuss the environmental impact of the construction industry and how these impacts can be substantially reduced through the re-use of substructure elements.

ABC 19-097: Spun Pipe Piles – A Time Saving Alternative to Micropiles

*Theresa McAuliffe, Thomas Kendrick – McFarland Johnson, Inc.

The Maine Department of Transportation successfully replaced the Weskeag River Bridge utilizing Accelerated Bridge Construction. The main challenge for the project was finding a foundation type that was suitable to both the site constraints and roadway closure window, as well as offering reduced risk. This project was only the second use of spun pipe piles on a bridge project in Maine. The author will discuss how spun pipe piles retain many of the advantages of micro-piles, how they were the best solution for the shallow bedrock conditions and underground obstructions and how they are compatible with integral and semi-integral abutments.

ABC 19-098: Enhanced Demolition Prediction via Computer Simulation         

*Ali Bakhtiari, Seung Lee – Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL

While maintaining the integrity of the neighboring infrastructure and safety of workers are of high importance during the demolition process, detailed guidelines or specifications are not available for engineers and contractors for a proactive demolition planning. This study aims to enhance the predictive capabilities by developing a numerical simulation framework that can be useful for the engineers and contractors to realistically model, simulate and visualize the bridge demolition. this project considers the impulse-based simulation framework that employs a reduced 1st order dynamics to realistically present larger scale discrete bodies’ interactions with almost two orders of speed-up while still maintaining the simulation fidelity.

Session 5 – ABC General

Moderator; Paul Froede, Alabama DOT; Jason Hastings, Delaware DOT

Time: 1:40PM – 5:40 PM

DAY ONE- ABC- General

ABC 19-013: Accelerated Bridge Construction and the interactions with Contractors

*Finn Hubbard, Fickett Structural Solutions

As part of the continuing efforts of the SHRP2 R04 ABC project, a series of contractor interaction workshops were planned for 2018/2019. The approach was to get in front of the bridge contractors and explain ABC, and how the contractors play an integral role in the future success of the state ABC programs. The first outreach workshop was held in Arkansas in November of 2018. Two additional contractor outreach opportunities are currently planned under the SHRP2 R04 project. This paper will focus on what was learned from the contractors both from a positive standpoint and from a contractor challenge point of view when it comes to considering the possibilities of ABC projects in the real world.

ABC 19-014: Epoxy Asphalt Chip Seal used for Accelerated Deck Replacement on the MacDonald Bridge

*Can Chen, John Bors – ChemCo Systems, Inc.

Epoxy asphalt has extremely good adhesion to the steel bridge decks, and the epoxy asphalt bonded chip seal can provide a thin, durable and long-lasting driving surface suitable for heavy traffic. With accelerated curing rate, epoxy asphalt chip seal applied on the steel bridge deck can be opened to traffic 4 to 5 hours after installation. A recent practice of epoxy asphalt chip seal was for the accelerated deck replacement on the MacDonald Bridge in 2016, Canada. The new deck segments were completely prefabricated in the shop and shipped to site, which allows for rapid replacement of the existing deck segments.

ABC 19-015: Resiliency Enhancement of Aging Frame Bridge Using Accelerated Bridge Construction as an Effective Climate Change Adaptation Approach

*Husham Almansour, Amina Mohammed, Zoubir Lounis – National Research Council Canada

Global changes in temperature, precipitation and wind patterns threaten the integrity and functionality of reinforced concrete highway bridges. Hence, there is a need to enhance the resiliency of aging bridges. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of climate hazards on the safety and stability of aged slab-on-girders bridges. The investigation is aimed at evaluating the resiliency of critical elements and the overall bridge system when subjected to changing climate and after extreme climate events such as flooding. The study shows the impact of accelerated construction/rehabilitation approaches on the enhancement of the bridge resiliency over minimum recovery time to ensure the bridge safety and serviceability.

ABC 19-035: Acrow Temporary Lift Bridge on the Sr 80 Bridge Replacement Project in West Palm Beach, Florida

*Michael Parciasepe, ACROW Bridges

In April 2017, construction began to replace the existing twin leaf bascule span. In order to maintain traffic during the demolition of the existing bridge, a temporary lift bridge was installed north of the existing bridge. This solution allowed traffic to flow with virtually no disruption. This paper will discuss the numerous advantages of constructing a temporary detour lift bridge. Also, by avoiding staged construction on the existing bascule bridge, the construction time required to implement the new bascule bridge is greatly accelerated. This paper will highlight the details of this specific project, and also show the viability of Temporary Movable Lift Bridges and Bascule Bridges.

ABC 19-036: Mass Production and Assembly Line Concepts in ABDF&C

*Joe Krajewski, HNTB / University of Washington College

Accelerated bridge design, fabrication and construction (ABDF&C) can be defined as anything that shortens the total project schedule. This presentation will demonstrate how mass production and assembly line concepts can be used for ABC on the rehabilitation and repurposing of the Wilburton Timber Trestle Bridge located in Bellevue, WA. The Wilburton Timber Trestle is 970-foot-long, 63 spans and up to 100 feet tall that is being converted for pedestrian and bike use. A new superstructure will consist of 30 sets of 5 steel stringers that are 2 span continuous (29’ long stringers) and connected together with 5 rows of diaphragms.

ABC 19-037: Innovative Bridge Designs that Accelerate Construction using Precast Concrete

*Gregg Reese, Andrew Mish – Modjeski and Masters

The use of precast components in bridge construction in the United States has steadily advanced. The popularity of Accelerated Bridge Construction has created more opportunities for creative applications of precast concrete to solve design challenges as well as reduce both construction time. Many bridge projects are being constructed with total precast solutions for the all elements. This paper will discuss the development of new methods and materials using precast concrete in bridge construction for both innovative and conventional projects to decrease construction times, solve difficult site constraints, increase economy, improve quality, enhance durability and reduce long term maintenance costs.

ABC 19-038: Quick-installation expansion joint solutions for faster bridge construction and more efficient maintenance

*Joseph Bilotti, Danilo Della Ca – Mageba USA

Expansion joints that can be quickly installed on a bridge offer an advantage over other expansion joint types. A number of expansion joint solutions that facilitate relatively quick installation shall be presented, with reference to a range of expansion joint types. In the case of modular joints, a solution shall be described which enables the embedded/permanently fixed elements of an existing joint to be retained while the mechanical part is simply unbolted and replaced, and an example shall be presented. Thanks to the implementation of solutions like these, the time required for bridge construction and maintenance work may be minimized.

DAY TWO- International ABC Experiences

ABC 19-055: Accelerated Bridge Construction in China: Past, Present, and Future *Tian    Qixian , Wuhan China Railway

Benefit from the blooming economy, bridge construction is at rapid speed in China.  This presentation showcases the latest development of China’s Accelerated Bridge Construction technologies using various project examples.   It coves long span structures, high speed rail system, sea crossing, construction in urban areas and challenging terrains.  The presentation will provide you with rich detail in how to build these structures with ingenious engineering solution as well as impressive construction equipment.

ABC 19-056: An Integrated Erecting Technique for Total Prefabricated Bridge Elements

*Changjiang  Wang, Xiangyang Chen, Lei Li – Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Communications Planning, Design & Research

A new erecting technique for prefabricated bridge elements, based on improved equipment is proposed, which total bridge elements, including columns, bent caps and beams, transported on the erected beam and installed by one erecting machine. In order to improve the work efficiency, the new proposed integrated erecting machine has two working faces. Columns and bent caps are erected on the first working face and beams are installed on the second working face, make full use of curing time of cementitious grout filled grouting sleeve. The new technology has been successfully applied on the land bridge of Main Passageway of Ningbo-zhoushan Port and has received high appraisal.

ABC 19-057: Replacement of Two Integral Abutment Bridges by Rapid Demolition and Lateral Slide Construction Methodology

*Matthew McFadden, Douglas Raby – Jacobs; Kris Mermigas, Ministry of Transportation of Ontario

Jacobs was retained by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario to complete the detailed design for replacement of two bridges along County Road 17 in Hawkesbury, Ontario (Canada) by rapid demolition and the lateral slide accelerated bridge construction methodology. Life-cycle cost analysis determined that replacement was more economical than continuing to rehabilitate the bridges. The new superstructures will be built on temporary supports. The foundations are drilled caissons comprised of a permanent steel liner and reinforced concrete core with non-standard details developed to connect the superstructure and substructure resulting in an integral abutment configuration that is compatible with the proposed construction sequence and methodology.

ABC 19-073: Lightweight Design of Precast Bent Caps in Municipal Engineering

*Hao Hu, Liang Zhou – Shanghai Urban Construction Design & Research Institute (Group) Co., Ltd.; Guoping         Li, Tongji University

In municipal bridge engineering, the width of superstructures is usually very wide to satisfy the increasing traffic quantity. Accordingly, prestressing concrete cap beams with long cantilevers are used as substructures. The large volume and heavy weight of cap beams put forward higher requests to transporting, handling, and assembly. To decrease the weight of cap beams, three structural schemes are proposed in this presentation. The area of the section can be reduced and 25%~30% weight of the cap beam can be decreased effectively with internal formworks removed and reused. All the schemes are easy to construct and effective in decreasing the weight of cap beams, which is very important for the development of precast segmental construction technology.

ABC 19-074: Finite Element Model for A Novel Demountable Shear Connector for Precast Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges

*Eirini Tzouka, Theodore Karavasilis – University of Southampton

A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model has been developed to investigate the shear load-slip displacement behavior of a novel demountable shear connector. Material nonlinearities and damage initiation/evolution laws were calibrated based on material characterization tests. Attention was given to accurately modelling the interactions between the main components of shear connector. A comparison between the FE analysis and experimental results from push-out tests shows that the FE model can predict the shear-load displacement behavior of the shear connector. Finally, an extensive parametric study was conducted to evaluate the effect of parameters on the capacity and behavior of the shear connector.

ABC 19-075: Innovative Matagrup Bridge Installation, Australia

*Javier Martinez Gutierrez, Ale Heavylift

“ALE has used its innovative Mega Jack system to lift both halves of the main arch of the Matagarup Bridge in Perth, Australia. ALE executed the complex lifting and installation works for two 400t steel wishbones that form the large central arch of the bridge, with the completed arch reaching 72m above water level at its highest point.

ABC 19-099: Rapid Replacement of County Bridges Utilizing H.S. Corrosion Resistant Steel

*Amgad Girgis, Micheal Asaad, Maher Tadros – eConstruct USA LLC

This paper presents a new concrete bridge system and a method for rapid replacement of short span county bridges. An example is given to show typical application. The design utilizes a single tee girder shape with high-strength, corrosion-resistant steel. Speed of construction comes from eliminating the need for prestressing or posttensioning. The flanges are set next to each other with an innovative connection, in order to eliminate the need for time consuming cast-in-place decks or composite topping. It is possible that the old bridge can be removed, and the new bridge constructed in several days, as all the new components are prefabricated

ABC 19-0100: Replacing an Interstate Bridge Deck within a Weekend Closure – Case Study of AccelBridge Deck System

* Eddie He, AccelBridge

The deck of a group of four bridges on I-89 will be replaced in the spring of 2019. Due to the high traffic volume and critical role in local transportation network, the deck replacement needs to be conducted within a 59 hours window over a weekend. Construction scope includes removing the existing deck and installation of new deck. AccelBridge is selected for the project due to its durability, speed and simplicity in construction, and cost effectiveness. AccelBridge utilizes match-cast deck panels which are compressed together by girder jacking method without deck post-tensioning. This presentation will cover the design, detailing, and construction of AccelBridge using completed project examples.

ABC 19-101: A New Perspective of Accelerated Bridge Construction

*Joan  Zhong – Brisbois; Daniel Robles – Integrated Engineering Blockchain Consortium

This paper illustrates an example of Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) and specialized applications of Blockchain Technology (BC) to reduce transaction frictions within the bridge design-build process. Normally associated with financial transaction, blockchain technology may be equally well suited for “knowledge transactions” upon which complex system integrations depend. Integrated with tools such as Open BrIM, blockchain technology can significantly shorten the “supply chain”, improve decision-making, and solve trust and communication challenges among stakeholders in bridge construction. The benefit can also extend prior to and after the bridge construction to facilitate regulatory requirements, significantly lesson design/construction disputes, and provide a solid framework for maintenance and operation to reduce bridge life cycle costs.

ABC 19-102: Development of a Low-Logistics, Rapidly Deployable Hybrid Composite-Concrete Bridge Girder System

*Anthony Diba, Habib Dagher, Bill Davids – University of Maine

This research was focused on the design of a lightweight, durable FRP bridge girder with a composite concrete slab for rapid bridge construction. A forty-foot span four-girder bridge was used as a design example. Experimental work was carried out to characterize the shear connection’s stiffness and strength as well as performance of the shear studs and the FRP-concrete interface. Additionally, a full-scale forty-foot girder specimen was tested to verify design assumptions. A pilot project has been identified by the Maine DOT for construction in 2019 where the girder system will be used for a seventy-five-foot bridge.

ABC 19-103: Lightweight Modular Accelerated Bridge System for Managed Car Lanes      

Saurabh Mittal, Horner & Shifrin

There is a widening infrastructure investment gap in a large number of countries. Aging infrastructure requires high maintenance. On the other hand, severe congestion on important urban interstate corridors is leading to prohibitive economic costs. This paper proposes use of managed car lanes to relieve pressure on existing infrastructure by giving policy planners a tool to effectively augment and manage existing Bridge infrastructure network. The paper combines Metal Grid Deck systems with Simple for Dead Load and Continuous for Live Load approach to create a rapidly scalable installation system for Highway Bridges especially for managed car lanes.

Session 6 – ABC General

DAY ONE- ABC- Research

ABC 19-016: Field-Cast Connections for ABC: From Research to Best Practices

*Zachary Haber, Benjamin Graybeal – FHWA

Prefabricated bridge elements (PBE) offer many advantages in terms construction quality and timeline. However, these elements commonly require the use of field cast concrete or grout to close the connection regions between elements. Field-cast connections have proven troublesome both in terms of construction process and in terms of long-term performance. In order to address this challenge, researchers at the FHWA Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) have completed more than a decade of research investigating materials, structural configurations, and construction processes. The paper will discuss conventional and innovative connection grouts systems, and will also provide some strategies to enhance the performance of conventional connection grout systems.

ABC 19-017: Performance Comparison of In-Service, Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck Panels to Cast-in-Place Decks

*Esmail Shahrokhinasab, David Garber – Florida International University

Full-depth, precast concrete (FDPC) deck panels have been heavily used in bridge construction since the 1970’s. The objectives of this project was to determine the actual in-service performance of full-depth, precast deck panels compared to conventional cast-in-place (CIP) decks and to determine successful and problematic details for these members. These objectives were accomplished through a survey of bridge owners, assembly of a full-depth precast deck panel database, and evaluation of bridge performance using available National Bridge Inventory (NBI) data. These comparison projects were used to evaluate the long term performance of FDPC deck panels through the NBI, collected inspection reports, and the Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP).

ABC 19-018: Corrosion Durability of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Repaired with Application of UHPC

Mahsa Farzad, *Kingsley Lau, Atorod Azizinamini – Florida International University

24% of the U.S. highway bridges are labeled structurally deficient or functionally obsolete which be replaced or upgraded to sustain the transportation needs of the growing public and private sectors of the US economy. This mandates the development of new techniques and materials for accelerated rehabilitation. Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has been promoted as a durable construction material that can provide a barrier to corrosion.

This paper investigates corrosion durability of UHPC repair and its possible use to mitigate macrocell corrosion. The objectives of the research presented here were to identify if concrete wetness will increase macrocell current and how much repair with UHPC may provide extended repair service life.

ABC 19-039: System Performance of a Precast Bridge Incorporating Full-Depth Deck Panels and Prestressed Inverted Bulb-Tee Girders

* Mostafa Tazarv, Nadim Wehbe – South Dakota State University; Michael Mingo Burns & McDonnell

The South Dakota DOT currently uses precast double-tee bridge deck because they are economical and fast in construction. The present study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of a new bridge system using precast full-depth deck panels and prestressed inverted bulb-tee girders. A full-scale 50-ft long bridge representing two interior girders from a prototype bridge was tested under fatigue and strength loading. Based on the construction, testing, and cost analysis, it can be concluded that the proposed bridge system is a viable alternative to the double-tee girder bridges. The presentation discusses the design, construction methods and highlights the findings of the experimental study.

ABC 19-040: Fostering Post-Tensioned Timber-UHPFRC Composite Highway Bridges

*Luca Sorelli, Universite Laval; Eugen Bruhwiler; Ecole Politechnique Federal Lausanne (EPFL)

Recent studies on post-tensioned bridges with glued-laminated timber (GLT) girders connected with a thin ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) slab have shown important advantages. This work aims at optimizing the design of GLT-UHPFRC for medium-span bridges by considering the long-term deflection and structural ductility. Longitudinal external unbounded post-tensioning is used to increase span capabilities, while post-tensioned transverse UHPC diaphragms improve the live load distribution. The structural ductility is guaranteed by prescribing a suitable hierarchy of failure modes. Finally, the construction phases and comparison with other bridge systems with a single span bridge ranging from 10 to 50m is discussed.

ABC 19-041: Non-Prestressed and Sustainable Precast Bridge Girders Using Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHP-FRC)

* Shih-Ho Chao, Missagh Missagh – The University of Texas at Arlington; Venkatesh Kaka, Armstrong-Douglass Structural Engineers

This research introduces an innovative precast non-prestressed ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHP-FRC or UHPC) decked bridge girder reinforced with high-strength corrosion-resistant rebars. The DCSR design concept utilizes the exceptional compressive ductility of UHP-FRC to increase the amount of reinforcement, which in turn fully utilizes the capacity of UHP-FRC in compression and reduces the stress in steel. The new girders provide equivalent or greater stiffness and first-cracking resistance and a much higher ultimate strength than conventional precast, prestressed concrete girders. The experimental and analytical results show that conventional precast prestressed concrete girders can be replaced by the new non-prestressed decked UHP-FRC girders.

ABC 19-042: Research and Development Efforts Aimed at the Commercial Production of a Shallow Press-Brake Formed Steel Tub Girder

*Karl Barth, West Virginia University; Greg Michaelson, Marshall University; Rich Tavoletti, AISI Steel Market Development Alliance

The Short Span Steel Bridge Alliance (SSSBA) are providing educational information on the design and construction of short span steel bridges in installations up to 140 feet in length. A modular, shallow press-brake-formed steel tub girder was developed. The composite tub girder is shipped to the bridge site, expediting construction and reducing traffic interruptions. The work to date demonstrates that this system is extremely efficient and is very economical when compared toward alternative bridge types utilized within the short span market. This paper will provide a comprehensive summary of the experimental efforts and filed implementation studies that have been conducted to date.

DAY TWO- ABC Innovation

ABC 19-058: Isolated Bridge Abutments for Accelerated Bridge Construction

*Mohammad Saifuzzaman, Matthias Schueller – Parsons Inc.                       

This paper will present how isolated bridge abutments improve the accelerated bridge construction process over the traditional solution. In recent years, a new type of abutment has been developed, primarily to improve the seismic response of the structure and accelerate bridge construction. This “isolated abutment” type is an intriguing idea to provide a cost-efficient answer to situations where construction time, seismic design, and soft-soil design are governed. This paper is intended to be a reference for bridge designers, owners, and the construction industry to promote customized cost-effective solutions that can be adopted to address Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques.

ABC 19-059: Post-Earthquake Functionality of ABC Bridges with Column Connections with Self-Centering Capability

*Bijan Khaleghi, WSDOT; Phil Yen, IABEE

The current seismic design practice requires normal bridges to meet the Safety Evaluation Earthquake (SEE) and Functional Evaluation Earthquake (FEE) for Essential and Critical bridges. This presentation focuses on the seismic performance precast bridge columns meeting the two level seismic hazard evaluations SEE and FEE requirement using a combination of UHPC for column plastic hinging regions in combination with super-elastic materials (shape memory alloy) or self-centering capability (unbonded center prestressing) to achieve seismic resiliency during earthquake and full or partial operation immediately after the earthquake.

ABC 19-060: Rapid Bridge Deck Restoration with “Fast Track” Hydro demolition and Very Early Strength Latex Modified Concrete

*Patrick Martens, Bridge Preservation and Inspection Services

“”Fast Track”” Hydro demolition with Very Early Strength Latex Modified Concrete (VESLMC) is an effective process for performing bridge deck rehabilitation and preservation. The robotic removal process includes the use of high pressure water blasting to remove all weakened or deteriorated concrete with a single pass of the waterjet. The use of rapid setting cement in a latex modified concrete produces a dense concrete that cures out and is traffic ready in as little as three hours. The “”Fast Track”” process has been used by numerous agencies in addressing the quick overhaul of bridge deck surfaces while minimizing inconvenience to traffic.

ABC 19-076: Comparative Study of Segmental Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer and Segmental Concrete Cable Stayed Bridge

*Marwan Nader, Hemangi  Pandit , Norman Quach – T.Y. Lin International

For most long-span bridges three options are considered for superstructure materials, concrete, concrete-steel-composite and steel. If we are able to use a lighter yet stronger material like Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) to completely design the deck section to make the structure more efficient. This paper studies the efficacy of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer deck sections and compares it to segmental concrete deck which is one of the prevailing materials of choice. A Sofistik model for long span cable stayed bridge will be analyzed using different material options and results with design demands, capacities and quantities will be compared to find the most efficient alternative.

ABC 19-077: Use of Robotics for Constructing UHPC Shells Formwork

*Atorod Azizinamini, Islam Mantawy – Florida International University

Unlike many industries such as electronics, automotive, and aerospace, the construction industry is being behind on implementing robotics and automated construction techniques. Automated construction can lead to an expansion in prefabrication Technology. This presentation discusses the development of UHPC shells which are prefabricated using robots. The automated UHPC shells are suitable for most of bridge elements such as bridge girders, cap beams, columns, and foundations.

ABC 19-078: Evaluation of Aging Slab-on-Girder Bridge Resiliency after an Extreme Climate Event Using Accelerated Bridge Construction

*Amina Mohammed, Hushamn Almansour – National Research Council Canada

Global changes in temperature, precipitation and wind patterns threaten the integrity and functionality of reinforced concrete highway bridges. Hence, there is a need to enhance the resiliency of aging bridges. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of climate hazards on the safety and stability of aged slab-on-girders bridges. The investigation is aimed at evaluating the resiliency of critical elements and the overall bridge system when subjected to changing climate and after extreme climate events such as flooding. The study shows the impact of accelerated construction/rehabilitation approaches on the enhancement of the bridge resiliency over minimum recovery time to ensure the bridge safety and serviceability.

ABC 19-104: Increase Service Life of Concrete Structures with Lightweight Aggregate

*Kenneth Harmon, Stalite Lightweight Aggregate                                                         

This presentation will discuss a recent study that was conducted to determine the effects of lightweight coarse and fine aggregates on the transport properties of concrete. Transport properties are used in several service life programs including STADUIM® and Life 365™. It is becoming very common to specify a required design service life of 75 years, 100 years or more on bridges and other structural concrete projects. Also, the use of lightweight aggregates can offer other benefits. Understanding how lightweight aggregate can affect the service life for typical concrete mixtures utilized in these structures should lead to early consideration of lightweight concrete or internally cured concrete in the design process of bridges and other structures.

ABC 19-105: Exploring Polymer Concrete for Bridge Deck Closures in ABC

*Mahmoud Taha, University of New Mexico; Islam Mantawy, Florida International University; Moneeb Genedy, University of New Mexico

Accelerated bridge construction (ABC) techniques are being used worldwide to reduce construction time and cost. Precast concrete bridge deck panels are used today as part of ABC to simplify bridge deck construction. When used, bridge deck closure joints are created in between the precast panels. Flowable yet very strong concrete with good bond and high shear strengths, such as Ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), is necessary to fill the closure joints. This paper examines the use of polymer concrete (PC) as an alternative material for bridge deck closures in ABC.

ABC 19-106:  Rapid Set Concrete Bridge Deck Overlays  

*Edward Liberati, Hydro-Technologies / Modified Concrete Suppliers

Accelerated, Long Term Structural Bridge Deck Repairs can be achieved using Very Early Strength Latex Modified Concrete Overlays. In 2018 we were involved with projects at many states where Fast Track Hydrodemolition and VESLMC was used to repair and preserve these bridge decks for 25 additional years of service life, since the 1960’s. This work was performed during weekend only or during restricted overnight lane closures. After placement, the VESLMC is ready for traffic in just 3 hours. VESLMC is an amazing hydraulic concrete material that is designed to withstand the harsh environments that bridge decks are subjected to.

ABC 19-107: Durability of GFRP Bars in Bridges with 15 to 20 Years in Service

*Vanessa Benzecry , Antonio Nanni – University of Miami; Douglas Gremel, Owens Corning Infrastructure Solutions

In order to validate performance of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), their durability is investigated in rebars of eleven bridges with 15 to 20 years in service. The bridges investigated are exposed to wet and dry cycles, freeze-thaw cycles and deicing salts. The results of these tests were compared to collected data of pristine bars at the time of installation or to current standards when collected data was not available. The SEM and EDS results showed minimal physical damage (0.05 to 0.12%) and minimal elemental distribution changes in some bridges. This study provides positive indication on the long-term durability of GFRP bars.

ABC 19-108: Practical Guidance for Designing Lightweight Concrete Bridges – The FHWA Lightweight Concrete Design Primer              

*Reid Castrodale, Castrodale Engineering Consultants, PC;  Dr. Andrew Foden, WSP

Lightweight concrete has the obvious benefit of reducing the weight of large precast elements often used for ABC projects.  This can save project costs by reducing the equipment requirements for handling, transporting and erecting the elements. However, many engineers are reluctant to use lightweight concrete in their bridge designs because they are not familiar with the material and how to use it. This paper introduces a Lightweight Concrete Design Primer that is being developed for FHWA to address these issues by gathering the information needed for design of lightweight concrete bridges into a single concise document.